This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.
The present studies were conducted to evaluate the cholesterolemic effects of whole-food diets high in stearic acid. In study no. 1, normocholesterolemic young men were fed diets high in stearic acid provided by cocoa butter (CB); oleic acid provided by olive oil (OO); linoleic acid provided by soybean oil (SO); and myristic acid (and lauric acid) provided by dairy butter (B). In study no. 2, different subjects with similar baseline characteristics were fed diets high in stearic acid provided by milk chocolate (C), CB, CB + B (4:1, MIX), and myristic (and lauric) acid provided by B. Both studies used a randomized, crossover, double-blind experimental design, and experimental subjects (n = 18 for study no. 1 and n = 15 for study no. 2) in each study consumed every diet for 26 days with a 1-month wash-out period between each experimental period. The diets provided 37% of calories from fat, of which 81% was provided by the test fat. Ten ounces (280 g) C was provided daily by the C diet. In study no. 1, the B diet was hypercholesterolemic, whereas the SO diet was hypocholesterolemic, compared with the other diets. The OO and SO diets were hypocholesterolemic compared with the CB diet. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, in general, paralleled the changes in plasma total cholesterol levels. SO significantly decreased apolipoprotein (apo) B levels compared with the other diets. Plasma very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and apo A-I levels were unaffected by the experimental diets. Compared with baseline, the CB diet elicited a neutral cholesterolemic response, whereas the B diet was hypercholesterolemic and the OO and SO diets were hypocholesterolemic. In study no. 2, the C, MIX, and CB diets elicited a similar and neutral cholesterolemic response; however, all were hypocholesterolemic compared with the B diet. Since the CB and B diets had virtually identical quantities of long-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA; C12:0 to C18:0), we believe that CB is hypocholesterolemic compared with B because of its high proportion of stearic acid. Thus, stearic acid has unique effects on plasma total cholesterol levels compared with other long-chain saturated fatty acids; the mechanism by which stearic acid exerts this effect is not clear. We also have shown that linoleic acid has a more potent hypocholesterolemic effect than oleic acid and does not affect HDL cholesterol levels or HDL composition.
- Serum cholesterol response to changes in the diet. IV. Particular saturated fatty acids in the diet.Metabolism. 1965; 14: 776-787
- Quantitative effects of dietary fat on serum cholesterol in man.Am J Clin Nutr. 1965; 17: 281-295
- Effect of dietary stearic acid on plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein levels.N Engl J Med. 1988; 318: 1244-1248
- ed 2. Lipid Research Clinics Population Studies Data Book. vol 1. Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD1980 (NIH publication no. 80-1527)
- Direct transesterification of all classes of lipids in a one step reaction.J Lipid Res. 1986; 27: 114-120
- Recent advances in capillary gas chromatography applied to lipid analysis.Prog Lipid Res. 1987; 26: 257-280
- Digestibility of cocoa butter and corn oil in human subjects: A preliminary study.Am J Clin Nutr. 1989; 50: 983-986
- Single plate separation of lung phospholipids including disaturated phosphatidylcholine.J Lipid Res. 1983; 24: 1651-1656
- Enzymatic determination of total cholesterol in serum.Z Klin Chem Klin Biochem. 1974; 12: 225-227
- Triglyceride determination after enzymatic hydrolysis.in: ed 2. Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. vol 4. Academic, New York, NY1974: 1831-1835
- Manual of Laboratory Operation: Lipid and Lipoprotein Analysis. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Bethesda, MD1974 (NIH publication no. 75-628) ed 2.
- Mathematical methods for estimation of concentration of the major lipid components of human serum lipoproteins.J Lab Clin Med. 1976; 88: 491-505
- Electroimmunoassay.Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1972; 1124: 21-37
- Comparison of apolipoprotein B to cholesterol in low density lipoproteins of patients with coronary heart disease.J Lipid Res. 1984; 25: 580-592
- Protein determination in membrane and lipoprotein samples: Manual and automated procedures.in: Lowenstein JM Methods in Enzymology. Academic, New York, NY1981: 296-303
- Applied Linear Statistical Models. Richard D. Irwin, Homewood, IL1985: 574-579 ed 2.
- Dietary saturated fatty acids and low-density or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.N Engl J Med. 1990; 322: 402-403
- The influence of dietary fats on serum lipid levels in man.Lancet. 1957; 1: 943-953
- Cholesterol balance and fecal neutral steroid and bile acid excretion in normal men fed dietary fats of different fatty acid composition.J Clin Invest. 1969; 48: 1363-1375
- Comparison of effects of palmitic and stearic acids in the diet on serum cholesterol in man.Am J Clin Nutr. 1970; 23: 1184-1193
- The role of fatty acid saturation in plasma lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins. II. The plasma total and LDL cholesterol response of individual fatty acids.Metabolism. 1993; 42: 130-134
- Dietary saturated fatty acids (12:0, 14:0, 16:0) differ in their impact on plasma cholesterol and lipoproteins in nonhuman primates.Am J Clin Nutr. 1991; 53: 491-498
- Comparison of effects of dietary saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in man.J Lipid Res. 1985; 26: 194-202
- Comparison of three cholesterol-lowring diets in normolipidemic men.JAMA. 1986; 256: 2351-2355
- Effect of a diet enriched with monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids on levels of low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in healthy men and women.N Engl J Med. 1989; 321: 436-441
- Effects of diets high in butter, corn oil, or high-oleic acid sunflower oil on serum lipids and apolipoproteins in men.Am J Clin Nutr. 1990; 51: 815-821
- Effects of dietary polyunsaturated and saturated fat on the properties of high density lipoproteins and the metabolism of apolipoprotein A-I.J Clin Invest. 1978; 60: 1582-1592
- The effects of low cholesterol, high polyunsaturated fat, and low fat diets on plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol levels in normal and hypercholesterolemic subjects.Am J Clin Nutr. 1981; 34: 1758-1763
- Influence of polyunsaturated fats on composition of plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins.J Lipid Res. 1982; 23: 811-822
- The effects of polyunsaturated fat vs. monounsaturated fat on plasma lipoproteins.JAMA. 1990; 263: 2462-2466
Accepted: March 22, 1992
Received: October 12, 1991
☆Supported by The American Cocoa Research Institute and The Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Station.
© 1993 Published by Elsevier Inc.
User licenseCreative Commons Attribution – NonCommercial – NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) |
How you can reuse
Elsevier's open access license policy
Creative Commons Attribution – NonCommercial – NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
For non-commercial purposes:
- Read, print & download
- Redistribute or republish the final article
- Text & data mine
- Translate the article (private use only, not for distribution)
- Reuse portions or extracts from the article in other works
- Sell or re-use for commercial purposes
- Distribute translations or adaptations of the article
Elsevier's open access license policy