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Relationship of changes in maximal and submaximal aerobic fitness to changes in cardiovascular disease and non[ndash ]insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus risk factors with endurance training: The HERITAGE Family Study

  • Jack H. Wilmore
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A[amp ]M University, College Station, TX; Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, CHUL Research Center, and Physical Activity Sciences Laboratory, Laval University, Qu[eacute]bec City, Qu[eacute]bec, Canada; Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA; School of Kinesiology and Leisure Studies, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO; and the Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.
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  • John S. Green
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A[amp ]M University, College Station, TX; Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, CHUL Research Center, and Physical Activity Sciences Laboratory, Laval University, Qu[eacute]bec City, Qu[eacute]bec, Canada; Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA; School of Kinesiology and Leisure Studies, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO; and the Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.
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  • Philip R. Stanforth
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A[amp ]M University, College Station, TX; Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, CHUL Research Center, and Physical Activity Sciences Laboratory, Laval University, Qu[eacute]bec City, Qu[eacute]bec, Canada; Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA; School of Kinesiology and Leisure Studies, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO; and the Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.
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  • Jacques Gagnon
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A[amp ]M University, College Station, TX; Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, CHUL Research Center, and Physical Activity Sciences Laboratory, Laval University, Qu[eacute]bec City, Qu[eacute]bec, Canada; Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA; School of Kinesiology and Leisure Studies, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO; and the Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.
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  • Tuomo Rankinen
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A[amp ]M University, College Station, TX; Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, CHUL Research Center, and Physical Activity Sciences Laboratory, Laval University, Qu[eacute]bec City, Qu[eacute]bec, Canada; Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA; School of Kinesiology and Leisure Studies, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO; and the Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.
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  • Arthur S. Leon
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A[amp ]M University, College Station, TX; Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, CHUL Research Center, and Physical Activity Sciences Laboratory, Laval University, Qu[eacute]bec City, Qu[eacute]bec, Canada; Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA; School of Kinesiology and Leisure Studies, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO; and the Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.
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  • D.C. Rao
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A[amp ]M University, College Station, TX; Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, CHUL Research Center, and Physical Activity Sciences Laboratory, Laval University, Qu[eacute]bec City, Qu[eacute]bec, Canada; Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA; School of Kinesiology and Leisure Studies, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO; and the Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.
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  • James S. Skinner
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A[amp ]M University, College Station, TX; Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, CHUL Research Center, and Physical Activity Sciences Laboratory, Laval University, Qu[eacute]bec City, Qu[eacute]bec, Canada; Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA; School of Kinesiology and Leisure Studies, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO; and the Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.
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  • Claude Bouchard
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A[amp ]M University, College Station, TX; Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, CHUL Research Center, and Physical Activity Sciences Laboratory, Laval University, Qu[eacute]bec City, Qu[eacute]bec, Canada; Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA; School of Kinesiology and Leisure Studies, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO; and the Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.
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      Abstract

      The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between changes in maximal oxygen uptake ([Vdot ]O2 max) and submaximal markers of aerobic fitness and changes in risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and non[ndash ]insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) consequent to a 20-week endurance training program. The 502 participants in this study were healthy and previously sedentary men (n = 250) and women (n = 252) of varying age (17 to 65 years) and race (blacks n = 142; whites n = 360) who had completed the HERITAGE Family Study testing and training protocol. Following baseline measurements, participants trained on cycle ergometers 3 days/week for a total of 60 exercise sessions starting at the heart rate (HR) associated with 55% of [Vdot ]O2 max for 30 minutes/session. This was progressively increased to the HR associated with 75% of [Vdot ]O2 max for 50 minutes/session, which was maintained during the last 6 weeks. [Vdot ]O2 max, heart rate at 50 W, power output at 60% of [Vdot ]O2 max, lipids and lipoproteins, resting blood pressure, body composition including abdominal fat (computed tomography [CT] scan), and blood glucose and insulin at rest and at peak following an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) were determined both before and after training. Following training, there were significant increases in [Vdot ]O2 max (16%) and the power output at 60% of [Vdot ]O2 max and a significant decrease in HR at 50 W. These changes in markers of aerobic fitness were significantly correlated only to the changes in the body composition variables and the lipids and lipoproteins. Further, there was considerable individual variation in response for all variables studied. Finally, when risk factor data were analyzed by quartile of change in [Vdot ]O2 max, there were few significant relationships. It is concluded that there is a significant relationship between changes in markers of aerobic fitness and changes in several risk factors for CVD and NIDDM. However, the magnitude of these relationships is small.
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