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Effect of macronutrient composition of the diet on the regulation of lipolysis in adipose tissue at rest and during exercise: Microdialysis study

  • Hana Suljkovicova
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Sports Medicine, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Czech Republic; Laboratory of the Adaptations to Exercise, Purpan University Hospital, Toulouse; Laboratory of Medical and Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Purpan University, Toulouse; and the Institut National de la Sant[eacute] et de la Recherche M[eacute]dicale Unit[eacute] 317, Rangueil University Hospital, Toulouse, France.
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  • Fabrice Marion-Latard
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Sports Medicine, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Czech Republic; Laboratory of the Adaptations to Exercise, Purpan University Hospital, Toulouse; Laboratory of Medical and Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Purpan University, Toulouse; and the Institut National de la Sant[eacute] et de la Recherche M[eacute]dicale Unit[eacute] 317, Rangueil University Hospital, Toulouse, France.
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  • Jindra Hejnova
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Sports Medicine, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Czech Republic; Laboratory of the Adaptations to Exercise, Purpan University Hospital, Toulouse; Laboratory of Medical and Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Purpan University, Toulouse; and the Institut National de la Sant[eacute] et de la Recherche M[eacute]dicale Unit[eacute] 317, Rangueil University Hospital, Toulouse, France.
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  • Marek Majercik
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Sports Medicine, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Czech Republic; Laboratory of the Adaptations to Exercise, Purpan University Hospital, Toulouse; Laboratory of Medical and Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Purpan University, Toulouse; and the Institut National de la Sant[eacute] et de la Recherche M[eacute]dicale Unit[eacute] 317, Rangueil University Hospital, Toulouse, France.
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  • Fran[ccedil]ois Crampes
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Sports Medicine, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Czech Republic; Laboratory of the Adaptations to Exercise, Purpan University Hospital, Toulouse; Laboratory of Medical and Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Purpan University, Toulouse; and the Institut National de la Sant[eacute] et de la Recherche M[eacute]dicale Unit[eacute] 317, Rangueil University Hospital, Toulouse, France.
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  • Isabelle de Glisezinski
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Sports Medicine, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Czech Republic; Laboratory of the Adaptations to Exercise, Purpan University Hospital, Toulouse; Laboratory of Medical and Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Purpan University, Toulouse; and the Institut National de la Sant[eacute] et de la Recherche M[eacute]dicale Unit[eacute] 317, Rangueil University Hospital, Toulouse, France.
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  • Michel Berlan
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Sports Medicine, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Czech Republic; Laboratory of the Adaptations to Exercise, Purpan University Hospital, Toulouse; Laboratory of Medical and Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Purpan University, Toulouse; and the Institut National de la Sant[eacute] et de la Recherche M[eacute]dicale Unit[eacute] 317, Rangueil University Hospital, Toulouse, France.
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  • Daniel Rivi[egrave]re
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Sports Medicine, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Czech Republic; Laboratory of the Adaptations to Exercise, Purpan University Hospital, Toulouse; Laboratory of Medical and Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Purpan University, Toulouse; and the Institut National de la Sant[eacute] et de la Recherche M[eacute]dicale Unit[eacute] 317, Rangueil University Hospital, Toulouse, France.
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  • Vladimir Stich
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Sports Medicine, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Czech Republic; Laboratory of the Adaptations to Exercise, Purpan University Hospital, Toulouse; Laboratory of Medical and Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Purpan University, Toulouse; and the Institut National de la Sant[eacute] et de la Recherche M[eacute]dicale Unit[eacute] 317, Rangueil University Hospital, Toulouse, France.
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      Abstract

      The aim of the present study was to elucidate, using a microdialysis technique, whether modifications in the proportion of fat in the diet influence lipid mobilization from adipose tissue in situ. Nine healthy volunteers (age, 23.4 [plusmn] 0.2 years; body mas index [BMI], 23.5 [plusmn] 1.6 kg/m2) were fed, in random order, with a high-fat diet (HFD) (65% of energy content fat, 15% protein, 20% carbohydrate) or a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) (70% carbohydrate, 15% protein, 15% fat) for 5 days, with a washout period of 10 days between the diets. Subjects were studied in the fasting state on the morning following days 4 and 5 of each diet. We measured the concentration of extracellular glycerol (EGC) in adipose tissue in response to (1) pharmacologic stimulation with isoprenaline (1 and 10 [mu ]mol/L) in situ, (2) stimulation with intravenous infusion of epinephrine (0.0375 [mu ]g/min/kg body weight), and (3) submaximal aerobic exercise (50% [Vdot ]O2max, 60-minute duration). No effect of the diet composition was found in the increases of EGC in response to isoprenaline (area under the curve [AUC]: HFD, 1,534 [plusmn] 370 [mu ]mol/90 min; HCD, 1,108 [plusmn] 465 [mu ]mol/90 min; not significant [NS]) or epinephrine stimulations (AUC: HFD, 190 [plusmn] 92 [mu ]mol/30 min; HCD, 251 [plusmn] 298 [mu ]mol/30 min; NS). The exercise-induced increase in EGC was higher during the HFD (AUC: HFD, 1,641 [plusmn] 181 [mu ]mol/60 min; HCD, 963 [plusmn] 156 [mu ]mol/60 min; P [lt ] .05) and was associated with a higher exercise-induced response of norepinephrine (P [lt ] .05) and epinephrine (P = .056) and lower insulinemia during exercise. The results suggest that macronutrient composition of diet does not affect the beta-adrenergic responsiveness of adipose tissue to catecholamine action at rest. During exercise, the HFD promotes higher lipolysis in adipose tissue and this is associated with a higher catecholamine response and lower insulinemia.
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