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In vivo rates of glucose uptake, insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4) content, and activities of glycolytic enzymes were determined in brown adipose tissue (BAT) from rats adapted to a high-protein, carbohydrate-free (HP) diet. Adaptation to the HP diet resulted in marked decreases in BAT glucose uptake and in GLUT4 content. Replacement of the HP diet by a balanced control diet for 24 hours restored BAT glucose uptake to levels above those in rats fed the control diet, with no changes in GLUT4 levels in 4 of 5 animals examined. BAT denervation of rats fed the control diet induced a 50% reduction in glucose uptake, but did not significantly affect the already markedly reduced BAT hexose uptake in HP diet-fed rats. It is suggested that the pronounced decrease in BAT glucose uptake in these animals is due to the combined effects of the HP diet-induced reductions in plasma insulin levels and in BAT sympathetic activity. Adaptation to the HP diet was accompanied by decreased activities of hexokinase, phosphofructo-1-kinase, and pyruvate kinase (PK). The activity of BAT PK in HP diet-fed rats was reduced to about 50% of controls, and approached normal levels 24 hours after diet reversion. BAT denervation induced a small (15%) decrease in BAT PK activity in control rats, but did not affect the activity of the enzyme in HP diet-adapted rats. Also, denervation did not interfere with the restoration of PK activity induced by diet substitution. Treatment with anti-insulin serum resulted in an almost 50% reduction in PK activity in both innervated and denervated BAT from rats fed the control diet, but caused a much smaller ([thkap ]20%) decrease in BAT from HP diet-fed rats. Furthermore, anti-insulin serum administration completely suppressed the restoration of BAT PK activity induced by diet reversion. These data suggest that, differently from glucose uptake, BAT PK activity is predominantly controlled by hormonal/metabolic factors.
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☆Supported by grants from the Funda[ccedil][atilde]o de Amparo [agrave] Pesquisa do Estado de S[atilde]o Paulo (FAPESP no. 01/10050-8) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cient[iacute]fico e Tecnol[oacute]gico (CNPq no. 510923/93-3)
© 2002 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.