Research Article| Volume 58, ISSUE 4, P552-559, April 2009

Download started.


Cold exposure increases adiponectin levels in men

  • Pascal Imbeault
    Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 613 562 5800x4269; fax: +1 613 562 5149.
    Behavioural and Metabolic Research Unit (Montfort Hospital), School of Human Kinetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5
    Search for articles by this author
  • Isabelle Dépault
    Behavioural and Metabolic Research Unit (Montfort Hospital), School of Human Kinetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5
    Search for articles by this author
  • François Haman
    Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 613 562 5800x4269; fax: +1 613 562 5149.
    Behavioural and Metabolic Research Unit (Montfort Hospital), School of Human Kinetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5
    Search for articles by this author


      Sympathetic nerve activation is recognized at the adipose tissue level during cold exposure. Adiponectin is a key protein produced by adipose tissue, but its acute modulation remains unknown in humans exposed to cold. The aim of this study were (1) to examine the acute effects of cold exposure on circulating adiponectin and (2) to determine whether the changes are modulated by (a) an acute glucose ingestion as well as (b) a short-term modulation in carbohydrate (CHO) availability. Using a random crossover design, 6 healthy men were exposed to cold for 120 minutes with ingestion of beverages containing low (Control, 0.04 g/min) or high (High, 0.8 g/min) amounts of glucose during the course of the experiment (study 1). In study 2, 6 healthy men were exposed twice to cold for 120 minutes after equicaloric low-CHO diet and exercise and high-CHO diet without exercise. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were quantified before and during cold exposure. In study 1, adiponectin levels did not change during High, whereas a 20% rise was observed during Control (condition × time interaction, P = .06). In study 2, adiponectin levels increased by approximately 70% during cold exposure after both low- and high-CHO diets (effect of time, P < .05). A 120-minute period of cold exposure is accompanied by a significant increase in adiponectin levels in young healthy men. The rise in adiponectin levels observed during shivering is inhibited with glucose ingestion but not after diets varying in CHO content.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Scherer P.E.
        Adipose tissue: from lipid storage compartment to endocrine organ.
        Diabetes. 2006; 55: 1537-1545
        • Maeda N.
        • Takahashi M.
        • Funahashi T.
        • et al.
        PPARgamma ligands increase expression and plasma concentrations of adiponectin, an adipose-derived protein.
        Diabetes. 2001; 50: 2094-2099
        • Yu J.G.
        • Javorschi S.
        • Hevener A.L.
        • et al.
        The effect of thiazolidinediones on plasma adiponectin levels in normal, obese, and type 2 diabetic subjects.
        Diabetes. 2002; 51: 2968-2974
        • Boden G.
        • Cheung P.
        • Mozzoli M.
        • et al.
        Effect of thiazolidinediones on glucose and fatty acid metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes.
        Metabolism. 2003; 52: 753-759
        • Tonelli J.
        • Li W.
        • Kishore P.
        • et al.
        Mechanisms of early insulin-sensitizing effects of thiazolidinediones in type 2 diabetes.
        Diabetes. 2004; 53: 1621-1629
        • Imbeault P.
        Environmental influences on adiponectin levels in humans.
        Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2007; 32: 505-511
        • Kraemer R.R.
        • Aboudehen K.S.
        • Carruth A.K.
        • et al.
        Adiponectin responses to continuous and progressively intense intermittent exercise.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003; 35: 1320-1325
        • Ferguson M.A.
        • White L.J.
        • McCoy S.
        • et al.
        Plasma adiponectin response to acute exercise in healthy subjects.
        Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004; 91: 324-329
        • English P.J.
        • Coughlin S.R.
        • Hayden K.
        • et al.
        Plasma adiponectin increases postprandially in obese, but not in lean, subjects.
        Obes Res. 2003; 11: 839-844
        • Peake P.W.
        • Kriketos A.D.
        • Denyer G.S.
        • et al.
        The postprandial response of adiponectin to a high-fat meal in normal and insulin-resistant subjects.
        Int J Obes. 2003; 27: 657-662
        • Imbeault P.
        • Pomerleau M.
        • Harper M.E.
        • et al.
        Unchanged fasting and postprandial adiponectin levels following a 4-day caloric restriction in young healthy men.
        Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2004; 60: 429-433
        • Mohlig M.
        • Wegewitz U.
        • Osterhoff M.
        • et al.
        Insulin decreases human adiponectin plasma levels.
        Horm Metab Res. 2002; 34: 655-658
        • Basu R.
        • Pajvani U.B.
        • Rizza R.A.
        • et al.
        Selective downregulation of the high molecular weight form of adiponectin in hyperinsulinemia and in type 2 diabetes: differential regulation from nondiabetic subjects.
        Diabetes. 2007; 56: 2174-2177
        • Garofalo M.A.
        • Kettelhut I.C.
        • Roselino J.E.
        • et al.
        Effect of acute cold exposure on norepinephrine turnover rates in rat white adipose tissue.
        J Auton Nerv Syst. 1996; 60: 206-208
        • Koska J.
        • Ksinantova L.
        • Sebokova E.
        • et al.
        Endocrine regulation of subcutaneous fat metabolism during cold exposure in humans.
        Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002; 967: 500-505
        • Fasshauer M.
        • Klein J.
        • Neumann S.
        • et al.
        Adiponectin gene expression is inhibited by beta-adrenergic stimulation via protein kinase A in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
        FEBS Lett. 2001; 507: 142-146
        • Delporte M.L.
        • Funahashi T.
        • Takahashi M.
        • et al.
        Pre- and post-translational negative effect of beta-adrenoceptor agonists on adiponectin secretion: in vitro and in vivo studies.
        Biochem J. 2002; 367: 677-685
        • Puerta M.
        • Abelenda M.
        • Rocha M.
        • et al.
        Effect of acute cold exposure on the expression of the adiponectin, resistin and leptin genes in rat white and brown adipose tissues.
        Horm Metab Res. 2002; 34: 629-634
        • Imai J.
        • Katagiri H.
        • Yamada T.
        • et al.
        Cold exposure suppresses serum adiponectin levels through sympathetic nerve activation in mice.
        Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006; 14: 1132-1141
        • Yoda M.
        • Nakano Y.
        • Tobe T.
        • et al.
        Characterization of mouse GBP28 and its induction by exposure to cold.
        Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001; 25: 75-83
        • Weller A.S.
        • Greenhaff P.L.
        • Macdonald I.A.
        Physiological responses to moderate cold stress in man and the influence of prior prolonged exhaustive exercise.
        Exp Physiol. 1998; 83: 679-695
        • Haman F.
        • Peronnet F.
        • Kenny G.P.
        • et al.
        Effect of cold exposure on fuel utilization in humans: plasma glucose, muscle glycogen, and lipids.
        J Appl Physiol. 2002; 93: 77-84
        • Fruebis J.
        • Tsao T.S.
        • Javorschi S.
        • et al.
        Proteolytic cleavage product of 30-kDa adipocyte complement-related protein increases fatty acid oxidation in muscle and causes weight loss in mice.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2001; 98: 2005-2010
        • Yamauchi T.
        • Kamon J.
        • Waki H.
        • et al.
        The fat-derived hormone adiponectin reverses insulin resistance associated with both lipoatrophy and obesity.
        Nat Med. 2001; 7: 941-946
        • Daly M.E.
        • Vale C.
        • Walker M.
        • et al.
        Dietary carbohydrates and insulin sensitivity: a review of the evidence and clinical implications.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1997; 66: 1072-1085
        • Sunehag A.L.
        • Toffolo G.
        • Treuth M.S.
        • et al.
        Effects of dietary macronutrient content on glucose metabolism in children.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002; 87: 5168-5178
        • Hotta K.
        • Funahashi T.
        • Arita Y.
        • et al.
        Plasma concentrations of a novel, adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in type 2 diabetic patients.
        Arterioscler Thromb. 2000; 20: 1595-1599
        • Siri W.E.
        The gross composition of body fat.
        Adv Biol Med Physiol. 1956; 4: 239-280
        • Haman F.
        • Peronnet F.
        • Kenny G.P.
        • et al.
        Effects of carbohydrate availability on sustained shivering. I. Oxidation of plasma glucose, muscle glycogen, and proteins.
        J Appl Physiol. 2004; 96: 32-40
        • Dubois D.
        • Dubois E.F.
        A formula to estimate the approximate surface area if height and weight be known.
        Arch Intern Med. 1916; 17: 863-871
        • Martineau L.
        • Jacobs I.
        Muscle glycogen availability and temperature regulation in humans.
        J Appl Physiol. 1989; 66: 72-78
        • Tikuisis P.
        • Jacobs I.
        • Moroz D.
        • et al.
        Comparison of thermoregulatory responses between men and women immersed in cold water.
        J Appl Physiol. 2000; 89: 1403-1411
        • Dill D.B.
        • Costill D.L.
        Calculation of percentage changes in volumes of blood, plasma, and red cells in dehydration.
        J Appl Physiol. 1974; 37: 247-248
        • Pajvani U.B.
        • Hawkins M.
        • Combs T.P.
        • et al.
        Complex distribution, not absolute amount of adiponectin, correlates with thiazolidinedione-mediated improvement in insulin sensitivity.
        J Biol Chem. 2004; 279: 12152-12162
        • Haman F.
        Shivering in the cold: from mechanisms of fuel selection to survival.
        J Appl Physiol. 2006; 100: 1702-1708
        • Fasshauer M.
        • Klein J.
        • Neumann S.
        • et al.
        Hormonal regulation of adiponectin gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
        Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002; 290: 1084-1089
        • Johnson D.G.
        • Hayward J.S.
        • Jacobs T.P.
        • et al.
        Plasma norepinephrine responses of man in cold water.
        J Appl Physiol. 1977; 43: 216-220
        • Bergh U.
        • Hartley H.
        • Landsberg L.
        • et al.
        Plasma norepinephrine concentration during submaximal and maximal exercise at lowered skin and core temperatures.
        Acta Physiol Scand. 1979; 106: 383-384
        • Young A.J.
        • Muza S.R.
        • Sawka M.N.
        • et al.
        Human thermoregulatory responses to cold air are altered by repeated cold water immersion.
        J Appl Physiol. 1986; 60: 1542-1548
        • Ricci M.R.
        • Fried S.K.
        • Mittleman K.D.
        Acute cold exposure decreases plasma leptin in women.
        Metabolism. 2000; 49: 421-423
        • Lafontan M.
        • Berlan M.
        Fat cell adrenergic receptors and the control of white and brown fat cell function.
        J Lipid Res. 1993; 34: 1057-1091
        • Arner P.
        Regulation of lipolysis in fat cells.
        Diabetes Rev. 1996; 4: 1-13