History of weight cycling does not impede future weight loss or metabolic improvements in postmenopausal women

      Abstract

      Objective

      Given that the repetitive loss and regain of body weight, termed weight cycling, is a prevalent phenomenon that has been associated with negative physiological and psychological outcomes, the purpose of this study was to investigate weight change and physiological outcomes in women with a lifetime history of weight cycling enrolled in a 12-month diet and/or exercise intervention.

      Methods

      439 overweight, inactive, postmenopausal women were randomized to: i) dietary weight loss with a 10% weight loss goal (N=118); ii) moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise for 45 min/day, 5 days/week (n=117); ii) both dietary weight loss and exercise (n=117); or iv) control (n=87). Women were categorized as non-, moderate- (≥3 losses of ≥4.5 kg), or severe-cyclers (≥3 losses of ≥9.1 kg). Trend tests and linear regression were used to compare adherence and changes in weight, body composition, blood pressure, insulin, C-peptide, glucose, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein, leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin-6 between cyclers and non-cyclers.

      Results

      Moderate (n=103) and severe (n=77) cyclers were heavier and had less favorable metabolic profiles than non-cyclers at baseline. There were, however, no significant differences in adherence to the lifestyle interventions. Weight-cyclers (combined) had a greater improvement in HOMA-IR compared to non-cyclers participating in the exercise only intervention (P=.03), but no differences were apparent in the other groups.

      Conclusion

      A history of weight cycling does not impede successful participation in lifestyle interventions or alter the benefits of diet and/or exercise on body composition and metabolic outcomes.

      Abbreviations:

      NEW (Nutrition and Exercise in Women), BMI (Body Mass Index), METs (Metabolic Equivalents), VO2max (Maximal Oxygen Uptake), DXA (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry), MAP (Mean Arterial Pressure), CRP (C-Reactive Protein), CV (Coefficient of Variation), ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), IL-6 (Interleukin-6), HOMA-IR (Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance), GEE (General Estimating Equation)

      Keywords

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