Given that the repetitive loss and regain of body weight, termed weight cycling, is a prevalent phenomenon that has been associated with negative physiological and psychological outcomes, the purpose of this study was to investigate weight change and physiological outcomes in women with a lifetime history of weight cycling enrolled in a 12-month diet and/or exercise intervention.
439 overweight, inactive, postmenopausal women were randomized to: i) dietary weight loss with a 10% weight loss goal (N=118); ii) moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise for 45 min/day, 5 days/week (n=117); ii) both dietary weight loss and exercise (n=117); or iv) control (n=87). Women were categorized as non-, moderate- (≥3 losses of ≥4.5 kg), or severe-cyclers (≥3 losses of ≥9.1 kg). Trend tests and linear regression were used to compare adherence and changes in weight, body composition, blood pressure, insulin, C-peptide, glucose, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein, leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin-6 between cyclers and non-cyclers.
Moderate (n=103) and severe (n=77) cyclers were heavier and had less favorable metabolic profiles than non-cyclers at baseline. There were, however, no significant differences in adherence to the lifestyle interventions. Weight-cyclers (combined) had a greater improvement in HOMA-IR compared to non-cyclers participating in the exercise only intervention (P=.03), but no differences were apparent in the other groups.
A history of weight cycling does not impede successful participation in lifestyle interventions or alter the benefits of diet and/or exercise on body composition and metabolic outcomes.
Abbreviations:NEW (Nutrition and Exercise in Women), BMI (Body Mass Index), METs (Metabolic Equivalents), VO2max (Maximal Oxygen Uptake), DXA (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry), MAP (Mean Arterial Pressure), CRP (C-Reactive Protein), CV (Coefficient of Variation), ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), IL-6 (Interleukin-6), HOMA-IR (Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance), GEE (General Estimating Equation)
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Weight cycling, weight gain, and risk of hypertension in women.Am J Epidemiol. 1999; 150: 573-579
- Recent weight changes and weight cycling as predictors of subsequent two year weight change in a middle-aged cohort.Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002; 26: 403-409
- Intentional weight loss and incidence of obesity-related cancers: the Iowa Women's Health Study.Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003; 27: 1447-1452
- Prevalence of weight cycling and its relation to health indicators in Finland.Obes Res. 2005; 13: 333-341
- Weight cycling and mortality in a large prospective US study.Am J Epidemiol. 2012; 175: 785-792
- Weight cycling. National task force on the prevention and treatment of obesity.JAMA. 1994; 272: 1196-1202
- Relation of weight variability and intentionality of weight loss to disease history and health-related variables in a population-based sample of women aged 55–69 years.Am J Epidemiol. 1995; 142: 1306-1314
- Weight variability and incident disease in older women: the Iowa Women's Health Study.Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1997; 21: 217-223
- Frequent intentional weight loss is associated with lower natural killer cell cytotoxicity in postmenopausal women: possible long-term immune effects.J Am Diet Assoc. 2004; 104: 903-912
- Psychological correlates of weight fluctuation..Int J Eat Disord. 1995; 17: 263-275
- Anthropometric, metabolic, psychosocial, and dietary characteristics of overweight/obese postmenopausal women with a history of weight cycling: a MONET (Montreal Ottawa New Emerging Team) study.J Am Diet Assoc. 2009; 109: 718-724
- Diminished weight loss and behavioral compliance during repeated diets in obese patients with type II diabetes.Health Psychol. 1991; 10: 378-383
- Weight cycling and fat distribution.Int J Obes. 1990; 14: 303-310
- Medical, metabolic, and psychological effects of weight cycling.Arch Intern Med. 1994; 154: 1325-1330
- Taste responses and food preferences in obese women: effects of weight cycling.Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1992; 16: 639-648
- Weight cycling and mortality among middle-aged or older women.Arch Intern Med. 2009; 169: 881-886
- Relationship of a large weight loss to long-term weight change among young and middle-aged US women.Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001; 25: 1113-1121
- Weight-loss attempts and risk of major weight gain: a prospective study in Finnish adults.Am J Clin Nutr. 1999; 70: 965-975
- Successful weight loss maintenance.Annu Rev Nutr. 2001; 21: 323-341
- Randomized clinical trials of weight loss maintenance: a review.J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2009; 24: 58-80
- Effect of diet and exercise, alone or combined, on weight and body composition in overweight-to-obese postmenopausal women.Obesity. 2011; ([Epub ahead of print])
- Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin.N Engl J Med. 2002; 346: 393-403
- Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes): design and methods for a clinical trial of weight loss for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes.Control Clin Trials. 2003; 24: 610-628
- Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities.Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000; 32: S498-S504
- Frequent intentional weight loss is associated with higher ghrelin and lower glucose and androgen levels in p[ostmenopusal women.Nutr Res. 2010; 30: 163-170
- Weight cycling and 6-year weight change in healthy adults: the aerobics center longitudinal study.Obesity. 2007; 15: 731-739
- Association of weight change, weight control practices, and weight cycling among women in the Nurses' Health Study II.Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004; 28: 1134-1142
- Measurement characteristics of the Women's Health Initiative food frequency questionnaire.Ann Epidemiol. 1999; 9: 178-187
- A questionnaire for the assessment of leisure time physical activities.J Chronic Dis. 1978; 31: 741-755
- Lea & Febinger, Philadelphia, Pa1991: 70-72 Guidelines for exercise testing and prescription.
- Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man.Diabetologia. 1985; 28: 412-419
- Homeostasis model assessment closely mirrors the glucose clamp technique in the assessment of insulin sensitivity: studies in subjects with various degrees of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity.Diabetes Care. 2000; 23: 57-63
- Longitudinal data analysis for discrete and continuous outcomes.Biometrics. 1986; 42: 121-130
- Effect of the volume and intensity of exercise training on insulin sensitivity.J Appl Physiol. 2004; 96: 101-106
- Effects of exercise modality on insulin resistance and functional limitation in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.Arch Intern Med. 2009; 169: 122-131
- Is lost lean mass from intentional weight loss recovered during weight regain in postmenopausal women?.Am J Clin Nutr. 2011; 94: 767-774
- Patterns of weight control strategies predict differences in women's 4-year weight gain.Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010; 18: 513-520
- Eating behaviours, dietary profile and body composition according to dieting history in men and women of the Quebec Family Study.Br J Nutr. 2004; 91: 997-1004
- Central nervous system control of food intake and body weight.Nature. 2006; 443: 289-295
- Long-term persistence of hormonal adaptations to weight loss.N Engl J Med. 2011; 365: 1597-1604
- Prospective study of intentionality of weight loss and mortality in older women: the Iowa Women's Health Study.Am J Epidemiol. 1999; 149: 504-514
- Mean body weight, height, and body mass index, United States 1960–2002.Adv Data. 2004; 347: 1-17
- Diet and physical activity behaviors among Americans trying to lose weight: 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.Obes Res. 2005; 13: 596-607
- Weight cycling and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes among adult women in the United States.Obes Res. 2004; 12: 267-274
Published online: August 14, 2012
Accepted: June 29, 2012
Received: April 23, 2012
Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT00470119.
© 2013 Elsevier Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.