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Alternate day fasting (ADF) with a high-fat diet produces similar weight loss and cardio-protection as ADF with a low-fat diet

      Abstract

      Alternate day fasting (ADF) with a low-fat (LF) diet is effective for weight loss and cardio-protection. However, the applicability of these findings is questionable as the majority of Americans consume a high-fat (HF) diet.

      Objective

      The goal of this study was to determine if these beneficial changes in body weight and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk can be reproduced if an HF background diet is used in place of an LF diet during ADF.

      Methods

      Thirty-two obese subjects were randomized to an ADF-HF (45% fat) or ADF-LF diet (25% fat), which consisted of two phases: 1) a 2-week baseline weight maintenance period, and 2) an 8-week ADF weight loss period. All food was provided during the study.

      Results

      Body weight was reduced (P<0.0001) by ADF-HF (4.8%±1.1%) and by ADF-LF (4.2%±0.8%). Fat mass decreased (P<0.0001) by ADF-HF (5.4±1.5 kg) and ADF-LF (4.2±0.6 kg). Fat free mass remained unchanged. Waist circumference decreased (P<0.001) by ADF-HF (7.2±1.5 cm) and ADF-LF (7.3±0.9 cm). LDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations were reduced (P<0.001) by both interventions (ADF-HF: 18.3%±4.6%, 13.7%±4.8%; and ADF-LF: 24.8%±2.6%, 14.3%±4.4%). HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, and heart rate remained unchanged. There were no between-group differences for any parameter.

      Conclusion

      These findings suggest that an ADF-HF diet is equally as effective as an ADF-LF diet in helping obese subjects lose weight and improve CHD risk factors.

      Abbreviations:

      ADF (Alternate day fasting), CHD (coronary heart disease), HF (high-fat), LF (low-fat), METS (metabolic equivalents), NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey)

      Keywords

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