Both metabolic syndrome (MetS) and nephrolithiasis (NL) are common and clinically important disorders. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess the association of MetS and NL.
Data were obtained from 116,536 individuals who underwent health screening tests between January 2010 and December 2010 at a health promotion center in Seoul, Korea. All subjects were asked to respond to a questionnaire including medical history of each subject. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were applied to each subject. Presence of NL was evaluated by an abdominal ultrasonography. The subjects were classified into MetS and non-MetS group according to the criteria for MetS (National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III). Compared to the non-MetS group, we estimated the Odds Ratios (ORs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) of the presence of NL in the MetS group adjusting for age, serum levels of creatinine and uric acid, and past medical history of NL based on the multivariate logistic regression analysis.
The prevalence of MetS was 15.9% (N=1129/7107) in the NL group, and 11.2% (N=12,287/109,429) in the non-NL group, respectively. After adjusting for the potential confounding factors, male MetS patients had a higher presence of NL than non-MetS subjects (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02–1.20; p=0.01). Of MetS components, only high blood pressure (BP) was a significantly related factor to the presence of NL (male; OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.01–1.15; p=0.043, female; OR 1.24; 95% CI 1.08–1.42; p=0.002). As the number MetS components increased, the presence of NL was significantly higher in male subjects (P for trend<0.001), but not in female subjects (P for trend=0.961).
We found that NL was associated with MetS and high BP.
Abbreviations:MetS (metabolic syndrome), NL (nephrolithiasis), DM (diabetes mellitus), TG (serum level of triglyceride), HDL-C (serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), BP (blood pressure), FPG (fasting plasma glucose), Cr (serum level of creatinine), eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate), UA (serum level of uric acid), CT (computed tomography), OR (odds ratio), CI (confidence interval)
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Published online: February 13, 2013
Accepted: December 11, 2012
Received: July 25, 2012
© 2013 Elsevier Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.