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Association of decrease in carbohydrate intake with reduction in abdominal fat during 3-month moderate low-carbohydrate diet among non-obese Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes

  • Tae Sasakabe
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466–8550, Japan. Tel.: +81 52 744 2132; fax: +81 52 744 2971.
    Affiliations
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550, Japan
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  • Hajime Haimoto
    Affiliations
    Department of Internal Medicine, Haimoto Clinic, 1–80 Yayoi-cho, Kasugai, Aichi 486-0838, Japan
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  • Hiroyuki Umegaki
    Affiliations
    Department of Geriatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550, Japan
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  • Kenji Wakai
    Affiliations
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550, Japan
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Published:January 29, 2015DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2015.01.012

      Abstract

      Objective

      The effectiveness of a moderate low-carbohydrate diet (M-LCD) has been demonstrated in terms of glycemic control, body weight and serum lipid profiles. We investigated the effect of a 3-month M-LCD on visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and examined an association between decrease in carbohydrate intake and reduction in abdominal fat among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

      Methods

      Seventy-six patients (45 men and 31 women; mean age ± SD: 59.5 ± 11.1 years) with T2DM were instructed to follow an M-LCD for 3 months. We assessed abdominal fat distribution using computed tomography and macronutrient intakes from 3-day dietary records at baseline and after 3 months.

      Results

      The patients complied well with the M-LCD – %carbohydrate: %fat: %protein at baseline and after 3 months were 51:27:15 and 41:33:18 in men and 54:27:16 and 42:37:19 in women, respectively. VAT and SAT significantly decreased during the 3 months (P for time <0.001 for both). Decrease in carbohydrate intake (g/day) and %carbohydrate were correlated with decrease (%) in VAT. The correlations were significant in men (Spearman correlation coefficient r = 0.469 for carbohydrate intake (g) and r = 0.402 for %carbohydrate) but not in women (r = 0.269 and 0.278, respectively). The correlations in men remained significant in multiple regression analysis adjusted for age and changes in energy intake.

      Conclusions

      In men, decrease in carbohydrate intake was significantly correlated with VAT loss during a 3-month M-LCD, independently of reduction in energy intake.

      Abbreviations:

      VAT (visceral adipose tissue), SAT (subcutaneous adipose tissue), LCDs (low carbohydrate diets), T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus), CARD (carbohydrate-reduced diet), M-LCD (a moderate low carbohydrate diet), HbA1c (hemoglobin A1c), OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test), BW (body weight), BP (blood pressure), FBG (fasting blood glucose), IRI (fasting serum insulin), TG (triglyceride), LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), TAT (total adipose tissue), WC (waist circumference), CT (computed tomography), BMI (body mass index), NGSP (National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program), PFC (protein: fat: carbohydrate)

      Keywords

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