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Weight regaining: From statistics and behaviors to physiology and metabolism

      Abstract

      Achieving maintenance of weight loss is crucial to combat obesity. However, most individuals tend to regain weight. Data from successful maintainers show that they remain vigilant and constantly apply techniques to oppose the course of regaining. On the other hand, current advances in obesity research show that the reduced obese state is a state of altered physiology in terms of energy balance. This review describes the physiological adaptations occurring after weight loss that predispose to regaining. Specifically, changes regarding body composition, hormonal background, energy expenditure and control of food intake are discussed. Moreover, metabolites that can act as regain predictors and dietary techniques to oppose regaining are presented.

      Abbreviations:

      ACE (angiotensin I converting enzyme), BMI (body mass index), CART (cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript), CCK (cholecystokinin), CRP (C-reactive protein), DXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), FFM (fat-free mass), GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1), MCH (melanin-concentrating hormone), NWCR (National Weight Control Registry), NPY (neuropeptide Y), NREE (non-resting energy expenditure), PYY (peptide YY), POMC (pro-opiomelanocortin), REE (resting energy expenditure), TEE (total energy expenditure)

      Keywords

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