Energy metabolism differs between sleep stages and begins to increase prior to awakening

  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this work.
    Momoko Kayaba
    Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    International Institute for Integrative Sleep Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai1-1-1, Tsukuba, 305-8575, Ibaraki, Japan
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this work.
    Insung Park
    Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    Doctoral Program in Sports Medicine, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai1-1-1, Tsukuba, 305-8574, Ibaraki, Japan
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  • Kaito Iwayama
    Affiliations
    Doctoral Program in Sports Medicine, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai1-1-1, Tsukuba, 305-8574, Ibaraki, Japan

    Department of Sports Science, Japan Institute of Sports Sciences, Kita, 115-0056, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Yumi Seya
    Affiliations
    International Institute for Integrative Sleep Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai1-1-1, Tsukuba, 305-8575, Ibaraki, Japan
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  • Hitomi Ogata
    Affiliations
    Doctoral Program in Sports Medicine, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai1-1-1, Tsukuba, 305-8574, Ibaraki, Japan
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  • Katsuhiko Yajima
    Affiliations
    Doctoral Program in Sports Medicine, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai1-1-1, Tsukuba, 305-8574, Ibaraki, Japan

    Department of Administrative Nutrition, Faculty of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo Seiei College, Katsushika, 124-8530, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Makoto Satoh
    Affiliations
    International Institute for Integrative Sleep Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai1-1-1, Tsukuba, 305-8575, Ibaraki, Japan
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  • Kumpei Tokuyama
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Division of Sports Medicine, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8574, Japan. Tel.: +81 298 53 3963; fax: +81 298 53 6507.
    Affiliations
    International Institute for Integrative Sleep Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai1-1-1, Tsukuba, 305-8575, Ibaraki, Japan

    Doctoral Program in Sports Medicine, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai1-1-1, Tsukuba, 305-8574, Ibaraki, Japan
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this work.
Published:January 03, 2017DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2016.12.016

      Abstract

      Purpose

      Human sleep is generally consolidated into a single prolonged period, and its metabolic consequence is to impose an extended period of fasting. Changes in sleep stage and homeostatic sleep drive following sleep onset may affect sleeping metabolic rate through cross talk between the mechanisms controlling energy metabolism and sleep. The purpose of this study was to isolate the effects of sleep stage and time after sleep onset on sleeping metabolic rate.

      Methods

      The sleeping metabolic rate of 29 healthy adults was measured using whole room indirect calorimetry, during which polysomnographic recording of sleep was performed. The effects of sleep stage and time after sleep onset on sleeping metabolic rate were evaluated using a semi-parametric regression analysis. A parametric analysis was used for the effect of sleep stage and a non-parametric analysis was used for the effect of time.

      Results

      Energy expenditure differed significantly between sleep stages: wake after sleep onset (WASO) > stage 2, slow wave sleep (SWS), and REM; stage 1 > stage 2 and SWS; and REM > SWS. Similarly, carbohydrate oxidation differed significantly between sleep stages: WASO > stage 2 and SWS; and stage 1 > SWS. Energy expenditure and carbohydrate oxidation decreased during the first half of sleep followed by an increase during the second half of sleep.

      Conclusions

      This study identified characteristic phenotypes in energy expenditure and carbohydrate oxidation indicating that sleeping metabolic rate differs between sleep stages.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      WASO (wake after sleep onset), SWS (slow wave sleep), REM (rapid eye movement)
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