As the word has been celebrating innovations and technological achievements during the last few decades, there has also been a noticeable increase in various non-communicable diseases, attributed, at least in part, to modernization and globalization [
How some effects of modernization fuel non-communicable diseases in Africa.
2]. In an era of increased sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy diet, obesity has been spreading steadily [
- Fox A.
- Feng W.
- Asal V.
What is driving global obesity trends? Globalization or "modernization"?.
Glob Health. 2019; 15: 32
]. Initially, this modern era pandemic of metabolic diseases due to obesity remained, and to a large extent still remains, largely overlooked, due to the slower pace and longer periods needed for the development of comorbidities [
Prevalence of obesity | World Obesity Federation.
- Alford S.
- Patel D.
- Perakakis N.
- Mantzoros C.S.
Obesity as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease: weighing the evidence: obesity as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.
Obes Rev. 2018; 19: 269-280
5], as compared for example to COVID-19, Ebola, influenza and other epidemics of communicable diseases [
- Pedersen S.D.
Metabolic complications of obesity.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 27: 179-193
]. Overweight and obesity affect one third to two thirds of children and adults in the US, Europe and other regions [
The Lancet Gastroenterology H
Obesity: another ongoing pandemic.
Obesity: another ongoing pandemic.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2021; 6: 411
WHO European regional obesity report 2022.
WHO European regional obesity report 2022.
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe, 2022
8], and the numbers are still rising. Approximately 80 % of patients with excess weight have metabolically unhealthy obesity, and the numbers of those afflicted by obesity induced comorbidities are definitively higher if one also considers individuals who have a normal body mass index (BMI), but central distribution of fat and an unhealthy metabolic profile, and thus are at a high risk of complications [
WHO report highlights the dangers of obesity.
- Raji A.
- Gerhard-Herman M.D.
- Warren M.
- Silverman S.G.
- Raptopoulos V.
- Mantzoros C.S.
- et al.
Insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction in nondiabetic Asian Indians.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004; 89: 3965-3972
10]. This is the time to act to address the obesity epidemic by preventing and/or treating excess weight, and thus reducing the associated morbidity and mortality [
- Mathew H.
- Farr O.M.
- Mantzoros C.S.
Metabolic health and weight: understanding metabolically unhealthy normal weight or metabolically healthy obese patients.
Metab Clin Exp. 2016; 65: 73-80
- Ryan D.H.
- Yockey S.R.
Weight loss and improvement in comorbidity: differences at 5%, 10%, 15%, and over.
Curr Obes Rep. 2017; 6: 187-194
Abbreviations:Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Tirzepatide (TZP), Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), Body mass index (BMI), Sodium-glucose Cotransporter-2 (SGLT2)
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Published online: March 02, 2023
Accepted: February 27, 2023
Received: February 26, 2023
© 2023 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.